Rules of Order
2.0 Vice Moderator
3.0 Stated Clerk
5.0 Opening and Closing of Judicatory Meetings
7.0 Adoption of Program: Orders of the Day
8.10 Bringing a Motion Before a Judicatory
8.20 Considering a Motion
8.30 Types of Motions
- Main Motion
- Subsidiary Motions
- Privileged Motions
- Incidental Motions
- Motions that Bring a Question Again Before the Judicatory
- Classification as to Form
- To Amend by Substitution
- Primary and Secondary Amendments
- Improper Amendments
1.1 The moderator has all the authority necessary to maintain order and for directing the business of the judicatory according to the rules and regulations of the church.
1.2 The minister in charge is the moderator of the session. The moderators of the other judicatories shall be elected for a set term and hold office until a successor is elected.
1.3 The moderator should be well-versed in parliamentary law and be familiar with the standing rules of the judicatory. At the same time, the moderator should bear in mind that rules are not a substitute for common sense.
1.4 It is the duty of the moderator:
- to announce in proper sequence the business that comes before the judicatory in accordance with the agenda or program and the existing orders of the day;
- to recognize members who are entitled to the floor;
- to state and to put all questions that legitimately come before the judicatory as motions or that otherwise arise in the course of proceedings (except those that relate to the moderator), and to announce the result of each vote; or, if a motion that is not in order is made, to rule it out of order;
- to protect the judicatory from frivolous or dilatory motions by refusing to recognize them;
- to require that the rules relating to debate and to order and decorum within the judicatory be observed;
- to expedite business in every way compatible with the rights of the members;
- to decide all questions of order, subject to appeal–unless, when in doubt, such a question is submitted to the judicatory for decision;
- to respond to inquiries of members relating to parliamentary procedure or factual information bearing upon the business of the judicatory;
- to authenticate by signature, when necessary, all acts, orders, and proceedings of the judicatory;
- to declare the meeting adjourned when the judicatory so votes or–when applicable–at the time prescribed on the program, or at any time in the event of a sudden emergency affecting the safety of those present:
- to appoint all committees unless otherwise determined by the judicatory, and
- to call the vice-moderator (or some other member) to the chair to preside temporarily; or before engaging in debate (except upon questions of order).
1.5 At each meeting, in addition to the necessary papers proper to that meeting’s business, the moderator should have at hand:
- a copy of the standing rules of the judicatory;
- a copy of the Rules of Order of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church/Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America;
- a copy of the current edition of Robert’s Rules of Order, and
- a memorandum of the complete order of business.
1.6 A judicatory may name the moderator an ex-officio member of all its boards and agencies (with voting rights); otherwise, the moderator is an advisory (non-voting) member of such boards and agencies.
1.7 If the moderator of a session is absent, or if the session is without a moderator, the clerk, or in his/her absence a member of the session, shall preside until a moderator pro tem is elected. In a congregation without a pastor, the moderator pro tem may be a member of the session or any ordained minister of the presbytery.
1.8 In judicatories above the session, if, during the term of office, the moderator is absent, the vice-moderator shall preside. If the vice-moderator is also absent (or if the judicatory does not have such an office), the stated clerk shall preside until a moderator pro tem is elected. In the absence of all of these officers, the members shall select a member of the judicatory to preside until a moderator pro tem is selected. If the absence occurs at the end of the moderator’s term of office, the same procedure applies, but the member elected by the judicatory shall become the moderator, rather than the moderator pro tem.
1.9 When an issue is being considered by a judicatory that refers to the moderator in a capacity not shared in common with other members, or that commends or censures the moderator, the chair should be occupied by the vice-moderator or an appropriate temporary occupant.
2.1 A judicatory above the session may have a vice-moderator when such an office is incorporated within its standing rules which prescribe the manner of election.
2.2 The vice-moderator shall perform the duties of the moderator during the absence or disability of the moderator or in the case of a vacancy in the office of moderator, and shall perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to the office of vice-moderator by the judicatory.
3.0 STATED CLERK
3.1 Each judicatory shall elect a stated clerk who shall preserve all minutes, documents, and papers committed to the office of stated clerk and submit these records to the next higher judicatory in compliance with that judicatory’s rules and regulations.
3.2 The stated clerk shall be elected for a definite term (normally three years) and shall hold office until a successor is elected.
3.3 All records and documents are the property of the judicatory and shall be kept and stored in accordance with the provision of the Constitution. Upon leaving office, the stated clerk shall transfer all such records and documents to the successor.
3.4 It shall be the duty of the stated clerk to record all minutes in permanent form and to supply extracts from them when properly requested. The stated clerk shall perform the duties of the office of stated clerk during the meeting of the judicatory unless otherwise determined by the judicatory. Other duties of the stated clerk shall be:
- to keep on file all committee records;
- to keep the judicatory’s official membership roll;
- to make copies of the official minutes of the judicatory and distribute them to the members prior to the next stated meeting (unless otherwise determined by the judicatory);
- to notify officers, committee members and delegates of their election or appointment, to furnish committees with whatever documents are required for the performance of their duties and to have on hand at each meeting a list of all existing committees and their members;
- to certify delegates or commissioners;
- to sign the minutes of all meetings;
- to read all papers to be acted upon (unless otherwise determined by the judicatory), and
- to record any vote which requires more than a majority following a polling of the judicatory or a division of the house.
3.5 The stated clerk shall record only those motions which are adopted unless instructed otherwise by the judicatory.
3.6 The stated clerk may or may not be a member of the judicatory.
4.1 The treasurer shall be elected for a definite period of time (normally a three-year term).
4.2 The treasurer shall keep the books properly posted so as to be able to provide a current report on the financial condition of the judicatory.
4.4 The treasurer shall present the financial records for an annual review or audit, the nature of such to be determined by the judicatory.
4.5 The treasurer shall not disburse any funds without proper authorization from the judicatory.
4.6 The treasurer may or may not be a member of the judicatory.
5.0 OPENING AND CLOSING OF JUDICATORY MEETINGS
5.1 The moderator shall open the meetings at the appointed time by taking the chair, calling the meeting to order, and after ascertaining that a quorum is present, calling the judicatory to prayer.
5.2 Should a quorum not be present at the appointed time, any two members can adjourn the meeting from time to time to afford an opportunity for a quorum to convene.
5.3 Following the roll call, the minutes not previously approved shall be read, corrected, and approved by a vote of the judicatory. The minutes of a church session shall be corrected and approved at the close of the meeting or at the beginning of the next regular meeting. minutes of all judicatories above the church session shall be corrected and approved before the adjournment of that particular meeting. If the existence of an error or material omission in the minutes becomes reasonably established after their approval–even many years later–the minutes can then be corrected by means of the motion to Amend Something Previously Adopted, which requires unanimous consent or a two-thirds vote.
5.4 The moderator of every judicatory above the session, in closing its meeting, may have a hymn to be sung in addition to the praying of a closing prayer or the pronouncement of a benediction.
6.2 Four members shall constitute a quorum for the presbytery provided at least one minister and one elder are present.
6.3 Six members from at least three presbyteries shall constitute a quorum for synod providing this includes at least one minister and one elder.
6.4 Any twenty or more commissioners, of whom at least ten are ministers and ten elders shall constitute a quorum for the General Assembly.
7.0 ADOPTION OF PROGRAM: ORDERS OF THE DAY
7.1 A program or agenda is adopted by a majority vote and is always subject to change. However, after having been adopted, a two-thirds vote is required for change.
7.2 An order of the day is a particular subject, question, or item of business that is set in advance to be taken up at a given session, day, or meeting, or at a given hour provided that no business having precedence over it interferes.
7.3 Orders of the day are divided into two classes: general orders and special orders. When an hour is assigned to a particular subject on the program, that subject is thereby made a special order. Subjects for which no hour is specified are general orders.
7.4 An order of the day that has been set for a particular hour cannot be considered before that hour unless the rules are suspended by a two-thirds vote.
7.5 A general order cannot be considered if other business is pending or if a prior general order has not been considered. A special order interrupts all business except certain privileged questions (See Robert’s Rules of Order).
7.6 Regular order of business:
- Reading and Approval of Minutes (session only)
- Reading and Referring (or acting upon)Communications Addressed to the Judicatory
- Reading of Resolutions
- Reports of Officers, Boards, Standing Committees and Commissions
- Reports of Select Committees
- Unfinished Business
- New Business
8.10 Bringing a Motion Before a Judicatory
8.11 There are three steps by which a motion is normally brought before a judicatory: (1) a member makes a motion; (2) another member seconds the motion, and (3) the moderator states the question on the motion.
8.12 To make a motion a member must rise, address the moderator and be recognized, and then state the motion.
8.13 The purpose of a second is to assure that more than one member of the judicatory wants to deal with a particular issue. It is not necessary for a member to obtain the floor to second a motion. A motion made by direction of a committee composed of judicatory members requires no second from the floor.
8.20 Considering a Motion
8.21 There are three basic steps by which a motion is considered:
- the members debate the motion (if debatable);
- the moderator puts the question (has the members vote), and
- the moderator announces the result of the vote.
8.30 Types of Motions
8.31 Main Motion
Purpose: To bring business before the judicatory.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is debatable; is amendable; requires only a majority vote (with few exceptions, see Robert’s Rules of Order); can be reconsidered.
8.32 Subsidiary Motions
Purpose: To assist the judicatory in treating or dispensing of main motions.
A listing of subsidiary motions from the lowest to the highest in the order of precedence:
a. Postpone Indefinitely
Purpose: To kill a main motion for the duration of the session and avoid a direct vote on the question.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is debatable; is not amendable; requires only a majority vote; an affirmative vote can be reconsidered, a negative vote cannot.
Purpose: To modify the wording–and within certain limits (see Robert’s Rules of Order, Section 12) the meaning–of a pending motion.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is debatable; is generally amendable; requires only a majority vote; can be reconsidered.
c. Commit or Refer
Purpose: To send a pending question to a committee so that the question may be carefully investigated and put into better condition for the judicatory to consider.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is debatable; is amendable; requires only a majority vote; can be reconsidered if the committee has not begun consideration of the question.
d. Postpone to a Certain Time (or Definitely)
Purpose: To defer action on a pending question within limits (see Robert’s Rules of Order, section 14) to a definite day, meeting, or hour, or until after a certain event.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is debatable; is amendable; requires only a majority vote; can be reconsidered.
e. Limit or Extend the Limits of Debate
Purpose: To exercise special control over debate.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is amendable but any amendment is undebatable; requires a two-thirds vote; can be reconsidered without debate any time before the order limiting or extending debate is exhausted.
f. Previous Question
Purpose: To bring the judicatory to an immediate vote on one or more pending questions.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is not amendable (except another member can move the previous question on more or fewer pending questions); requires a two-thirds vote; can be reconsidered (before any vote has been taken).
g. Lay on the Table
Purpose: To allow the judicatory to lay the pending question aside temporarily.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; requires only a majority vote; cannot be reconsidered.
8.33 Privileged Motions
Purpose: To allow the judicatory, without debate, to deal with special matters of immediate and overriding importance that do not relate to the pending business.
A listing of privileged motions from the lowest to the highest in the order of precedence:
a. Call for the Orders of the Day
Purpose: To require the judicatory to follow its adopted program or agenda.
Characteristics: Does not require a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; does not require a vote, but can be set aside by a two-thirds vote; cannot be reconsidered.
b. Raise a Question of Privilege
Purpose: To permit a request or main motion relating to the rights and privileges of the judicatory or any of its members to be brought up for immediate consideration while business is pending.
Characteristics: Does not require a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; is ruled upon by the moderator; cannot be reconsidered.
Purpose: To permit a short intermission in the judicatory’s proceedings which does not close the meeting, and after which business will be immediately resumed at the point where it was interrupted.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is amendable as to the length of time, but such an amendment is not debatable; requires only a majority vote; cannot be reconsidered.
Purpose: To close the present meeting when no time for adjourning has been set and provision for a future meeting exists.
e. Fix Time to Which to Adjourn
Purpose: To set the time, and sometimes the place, for another meeting to continue business of the session with no effect on when the present meeting will adjourn.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is amendable as to the date, hour or place, but such amendments are not debatable; requires only a majority vote; can be reconsidered.
8.34 Incidental Motions
Purpose: To raise incidental questions (usually questions of procedure). Incidental questions usually must be decided before business can proceed.
A listing of incidental motions:
a. Point of Order
Purpose: To call upon the moderator for a ruling and an enforcement of the rules of order.
Characteristics: Does not require a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; is ruled upon by the chair (no vote is taken unless the moderator is in doubt or his ruling is appealed); cannot be reconsidered.
Purpose: To take the moderator’s ruling to the judicatory for final decision.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is normally undebatable (see Robert’s Rules of Order for exceptions); is not amendable; a majority or tie vote sustains the decision of the moderator; can be reconsidered.
c. Suspend the Rules
Purpose: To allow the judicatory to do something it cannot do without violating one or more of its regular rules.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; requires a two-thirds vote; cannot be reconsidered.
d. Objection to the Consideration of a Question
Purpose: To enable the judicatory to avoid a particular main motion when it believes it would be undesirable for the motion to even come before the judicatory.
Characteristics: Does not require a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; a two-thirds vote against consideration is required to sustain the objection; a vote sustaining the objection can be reconsidered, but one not sustaining the objection cannot.
e. Division of a Question
Purpose: To allow the parts of a question to be separated.
Procedure: The motion to divide must clearly state the manner in which the question is to be divided. A motion cannot be divided unless each part presents a proper question for the judicatory to act upon if none of the other parts are adopted. If a series of independent questions are offered in one motion, the questions must receive separate consideration at the request of a single member and the motion for Division of a Question is not used. (See Robert’s Rules of Order, Section 27).
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is amendable; requires only a majority vote; cannot be reconsidered.
f. Consideration by Paragraph or Seriatim
Purpose: To allow a report or long motion consisting of a series of resolutions, paragraphs, articles, or sections to be considered by opening the different parts to debate and amendment separately.
Procedure: Each sub-division should be read, explained by its proponent and then opened for debate and amendment. Amendments are voted on as they arise, but no sub-division is finally adopted at that time. After all parts have been considered, the entire document is opened for amendment. Following this, the vote is taken on the entire document as amended.
g. Division of the Judicatory
Purpose: To allow a member, whenever that member doubts the results of a voice vote, or a vote by show of hands, or that a representative number of the members present have voted, to require a standing vote.
Characteristics: Does not require a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; does not require a vote since a single member can demand a division; cannot be reconsidered.
8.35 Motions that Bring a Question Again Before the Judicatory
Purpose: To allow the judicatory to bring questions before it again through special procedures.
A list of motions that bring questions again before the judicatory:
a. Take from the Table
Purpose: To bring before the judicatory a motion or a series of adhering motions that has previously been laid on the table.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is not debatable; is not amendable; requires only a majority vote; cannot be reconsidered but can be renewed each time that any business has been transacted.
b. Rescind; Amend something previously Adopted (two forms of one motion)
Purpose: To allow a previous action or order to be canceled or countermanded. The form to Rescind should be used when the object is to delete; the form to Amend Something Previously Adopted should be used when the object is to change a portion or all of a text.
Characteristics: Require a second; are debatable; are amendable; require a two-thirds vote, a negative vote can be reconsidered, but an affirmative cannot. These motions are not in order when it has previously been moved to reconsider the vote on the main motion, and the question can be reached by calling up the motion to Reconsider. There is no time limit on these matters and they can be moved by any member, regardless of how the member voted on the original question.
To Expunge: It shall require the unanimous vote of the members present to expunge any matter from the records.
c. Discharge a Committee
Purpose: To take a matter out of a committee’s hands before the committee has made a final report on it. So long as a question is in the hands of a committee, the judicatory cannot consider another motion involving practically the same question.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is debatable; is amendable; requires a two-thirds vote; a negative vote can be reconsidered, but not an affirmative vote.
Purpose: To allow the judicatory–within a limited time and without notice–to bring back for further consideration a motion which has already been voted on.
Characteristics: Requires a second; is debatable when the original question was debatable; is not amendable; requires only a majority vote regardless of the vote necessary to adopt the motion to be considered; cannot be reconsidered.
- It can only be made by a member who voted with the prevailing side.
- In a meeting of more than one day, the motion to reconsider can be moved only on the same day the original vote was taken, or on the next succeeding day.
- Until the moderator states the question, the maker has the right to modify the motion or to withdraw it.
- After the question has been stated by the moderator, the motion becomes property of the judicatory and cannot be modified or withdrawn without the judicatory’s consent.
- If the maker of a motion modifies it before the question is stated, the member who seconded it has a right to withdraw the second.
9.10 Classification as to form
9.11 To insert or to add words or a paragraph.
9.12 To strike out words or a paragraph.
9.20 To Amend by Substitution
9.21 A motion to amend by striking out one or more paragraphs and adding one or more new paragraphs as a replacement is called a motion to substitute. In the case of a motion to substitute, the pending question is first opened to improvement by secondary amendment; then opportunity is given to amend the proposed substitute–so that both the pending question and the substitute may be put in the most desirable form before the vote is taken on whether the substitution shall be made. If the motion to substitute is carried, the substituted material can no longer be amended except by adding nonmodifying matter.
9.30 Primary and Secondary Amendments
9.31 A primary amendment amends a main motion. A secondary amendment amends a primary amendment. (It is sometimes called an amendment to the amendment). A secondary amendment cannot be amended since it would make parliamentary procedure too complicated.
9.40 Improper Amendments
- are not germane to the question to be amended;
- merely make the adoption of the amended question equivalent to a rejection of the amended motion;
- purposes to change one form of an amendment to another, and
- would have the effect of converting one parliamentary motion into another.
10.00 ASSIGNMENT OF THE FLOOR AND DEBATE
10.01 To gain the floor, a member must rise, address the moderator, and be recognized by the moderator.
10.02 If two or more members rise to seek the floor at the same time, the one farthest from the moderator shall be recognized.
10.03 Until a matter has been brought before the judicatory in the form of a motion proposing a specific action, it cannot be debated.
10.04 A member having obtained the floor for the purpose of engaging in debate can speak no longer than ten minutes without obtaining the consent of the judicatory. Such permission can be given by unanimous consent or by means of a motion to extend the limits of debate which requires a two-thirds vote and is not debatable.
10.05 No member can speak more than twice to the same question on the same day without the consent of the judicatory. Asking or answering a question is not counted as speaking in debate.
10.06 Debate can be closed by moving the previous question. The previous question can be applied to any pending debatable or amendable motion; to an entire series of such motions; or to any consecutive part of such a series.
10.07 Rights in debate are not transferrable. A member may not yield a portion of time to another member or reserve it for later except by unanimous consent or by suspension of the rules.
10.08 In debate a member’s remarks must be germane to the question before the judicatory. For example, when a secondary amendment is the pending question, the member can debate only that amendment, not the primary amendment or the main motion.
10.09 When a question is pending, that measure can be criticized in strong terms, but personalities should not be brought into the debate nor should the motives of other members be questioned or attacked. Members should always treat one another with respect.
10.10 Members of the judicatory should not address one another directly, but should address all remarks through the moderator.
10.11 As much as possible, the use of members’ names should be avoided in debate.
11.0 NOMINATIONS AND ELECTIONS
11.1 Nominations are usually made by a nominating committee and from the floor. The use of a nominating committee must not preclude the making of nominations from the floor.
11.2 A nominating committee should be elected by the judicatory unless its composition is determined by the standing rules.
11.3 Whenever possible, a member’s consent should be obtained before that member’s name is placed in nomination.
11.5 Election to an office becomes final immediately, if the candidate is present, and does not decline; or if absent, has given prior consent. If the member is absent and has not given prior consent, the election becomes final when notice of election is given to the member, provided the member does not immediately decline.
11.6 A judicatory after having elected one of its members to represent it at a higher judicatory shall not instruct that member how to vote on the issues; however, counseling with representatives is always in order.
12.1 Voting is normally by voice, by rising, by show of hands, or by ballot.
12.2 When more than one person is nominated for the same office, the method of voting shall be by ballot.
12.3 All members who are eligible to vote shall do so unless excused by the judicatory. Members thus excused shall not be allowed a vote in subsequent proceedings relating to that particular question.
12.4 The moderator shall vote only when the moderator’s vote would create or break a tie, or cause or block the attainment of a two-thirds majority, or when the vote is taken by roll call.
12.5 No member should vote on a question in which the member has a direct personal or pecuniary interest not common to other members of the judicatory. This does not mean that members are prevented from voting for themselves for an office or other position to which members generally are eligible (see Robert’s Rules of Order, Section 44).
12.7 When the moderator has begun taking the vote, no further debate or remark shall be allowed except to correct a mistake.
12.8 A roll call vote on any question shall not be taken unless requested by at least one-fifth of the members present.
12.9 In all elections, a majority of votes are necessary to elect.
13.00 BOARDS, COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS
13.01 A board is an administrative body of elected persons whose powers are delegated to it by the authority of the judicatory.
13.02 A board cannot delegate its authority, but any board can appoint subcommittees to work under its supervision or according to its specific instructions. Such subcommittees always report to the board.
13.03 A committee is a body of one or more persons, elected or appointed by a judicatory to consider, investigate, or take action on certain matters or subjects, or to do all of these things.
13.04 Committees are of two types: standing committees (which have a continuing existence) and special committees (which go out of existence as soon as they have completed a specified task or tasks). Special committees are sometimes called select committees or ad hoc committees.
13.05 The first person named on a committee shall be considered the chairperson, whose duties it shall be to convene the committee and preside over its meetings. If for any reason this person cannot act in this capacity, the second person named shall assume these responsibilities.
13.06 The moderator shall appoint the usual standing committees but shall not raise new committees without instruction.
13.07 A member who is in opposition to the whole matter upon which a committee is to act shall not be compelled to serve on that committee.
13.08 A committee has less authority to act independently for the judicatory than a board. When a judicatory needs an ad hoc group, which can act with more authority than a committee normally has, a commission should be elected. Commissions differ from ordinary committees in that while a committee can simply examine, consider and report, a commission is authorized to deliberate upon and conclude the business submitted to it, subject to the review of the judicatory appointing it.
13.09 Board reports which are reviewed by a select committee cannot be amended by the judicatory and, if printed, shall be printed as submitted by the board. However, board reports which are brought directly to the floor of the judicatory for review and action shall be treated as committee reports and be subject to amendment, but the judicatory shall not make such a board report (or a committee or commission report) appear to say something different from the wording that was actually reported. For this reason, the published report would show clearly whatever changes the judicatory makes by the use of brackets, underlining, italics, or other appropriate means.
13.10 A judicatory may accept a report by concurring in it and adopting its recommendations, or by simply adopting its recommendations.
13.11 No action apart from filing is necessary upon a report that contains only statements of fact or opinions for judicatory information.
13.12 Minority reports shall be heard only by consent of, or by a majority vote of, the judicatory. When a minority report is presented it is for information only and it cannot be acted upon except by a motion to substitute it for the report of the committee.
13.13 Ex-officio members of boards and committees are members by virtue of some office that they hold. There is no distinction between ex-officio members and appointed or elected members. When ex-officio members cease to hold the offices that entitle them to membership on a board or committee, their membership terminates automatically.
13.14 Advisory members are non-voting members who have the privilege of offering counsel or advice to the board or committee.
13.15 Members of judicatory boards and committees who are not members of the judicatory may vote in the board and committee meetings but not in the meetings of the judicatory.
13.16 Every judicatory has a right to resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole, in which members may freely converse together without the formalities necessary in their ordinary proceedings. In all such cases the moderator shall name the member who to preside as chairperson. If the committee be unable to agree, a motion may be made that the committee rise; and upon adoption of such motion, the moderator shall resume the chair, and the chairperson of the committee shall report what has been done, and ask that the committee be discharged, which being allowed, the matter shall be dropped. If the committee shall agree upon the report to be made, or have made progress in the same without coming to a conclusion, the committee may rise, report what has been done, and, if the case require, may ask leave to sit again; or the Committee of the Whole may be dissolved, and the question considered by the judicatory in the usual order of business.
14.0 CASES NOT PROVIDED FOR IN THESE RULES
14.1 These Rules of Order are based on Robert’s Rules of Order. All cases that may arise which are not provided for in these Rules or in the Government of the church shall be governed by Robert’s Rules of Order.